This chapter reviews the existing literature on fairness preferences and beliefs about inequality. The review is divided into two parts. The first part discusses to what extent individual characteristics and choices are perceived as unfair sources of inequality and assesses the extent to which people endorse fairness conceptions that are in line with responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism. The second part analyzes which individual characteristics and choices are perceived as important determinants of economic outcomes and assesses the extent to which people believe in the existence of equal opportunities for all. In both parts, the chapter discusses the advantages and shortcomings of prevalent methodological approaches to data collection. Furthermore, the chapter presents evidence on heterogeneities in preferences and beliefs across countries and different sociodemographic groups. The review suggests broad support for responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism as a fairness ideal. Furthermore, there is a strong belief in the existence of opportunities and the meritocratic functioning of societies, especially in industrialized countries. Yet, since prevalent modes of data collection are susceptible to framing effects, the literature remains inconclusive on many important aspects that would allow for a more nuanced interpretation of fairness preferences and beliefs about inequality and more robust policy advice.